Wildlife Associations: The flowers are pollinated by a variety of beneficial insects including parasitoid wasps, small bees, bumblebees, and various flies. The fruits are consumed by birds as well as some mammal species including deer.
Restoration: Secondary species for augmenting long-lived herbaceous diversity in mesic to moist mature forest understories
Herbalism: Used as a birthing tonic, as well as for fevers, cramps, and rheumatism in Native American traditions. This herb continues to be used as a uterine tonic and prenatal herb in contemporary herbal practice.
Edibility: Not edible
Other uses: Unknown